Bleeding: Definition, Causes, Diagnostic Procedures, and Treatment

Bleeding: Definition, Causes, Diagnostic Procedures, and Treatment

What is bleeding?

Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or hemorrhaging, is blood dissemination from the circulatory system.  The process can include internal or external bleeding or worse Hypovolemia which will be discussed in detail in this article. 

When it comes to bleeding, it can occur in the following ways:

  1. Internal: blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body
  2. External: blood expanses either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus or through a traumatic break in the skin or mucosa.

A massive decrease in blood volume is called Hypovolemia, and if it is not stopped may lead to the death due to exsanguination.

First aid and surgical procedures aimed at stopping or controlling of bleeding are called hemostasis. 

What is Hypovolemia (bleeding)?

This condition is when the body is in the process of losing too much blood even more than a fifth of the total amount of blood supply.

People most at risk of hypovolemia are:

  • Young children
  • Elderly

Causes of Hypovolemia

Blood loss can occur due to various reasons but for severe blood loss to occur will result in a life-threatening or fatal situation. What is Hypovolemia caused by and why do people suffer from it?
Hypovolemia is often caused by the following:
  • Serious wounds
  • Blunt traumatic injury
  • Organ rupture and internal bleeding
  • Ruptured ectopic pregnancy
  • Digestive tract bleeding
When severe fluid in the body is lost this can also lead to a decrease in blood supply to the heart. These can be seen in the case of the following:
  • Severe burns
  • Excessive diarrhea
  • Excessive and protracted vomiting
When considering what is hypovolemia (bleeding), one should also consider what the symptoms are to recognize it before the situation gets worse. The following are some symptoms:
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Profuse sweating
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
Other severe symptoms to look out for after learning what is hypovolemia (bleeding) are clammy skin, paleness, confusion, blue lips and fingernails,  a slow weak pulse and loss of consciousness.
When the patient is experiencing hypovolemia, blood will be expelled from the visible wound but if it is internal, the patient may experience abdominal pain and or swelling, chest pain, vomiting blood or defecating bloody stool.

Diagnostic Procedures

If you suspect that you or someone else is suffering from the same symptoms as is seen for what is hypovolemia (bleeding) then you have to seek medical assistance as soon as possible.
Internal bleeding is hard to recognize and sometimes the patient experiences a hypovolemic shock. Diagnosing hypovolemic shock includes checking the patient's vital signs. Low blood pressure is a sign as well as a fast heart rate and slow response from the patient when being asked questions.
Other diagnoses to check whether the patient is bleeding internally may include a series of procedures such as:
  • CT scans and ultrasounds as these machines are able to look inside the body
  • An echo-cardiogram works similar to an ultrasound but made for the heart
  • Electrocardiogram tests to check the heart rhythm
  • Endoscopy to examine the esophagus, stomach, and intestines
  • Right heart catheterization to examine how the heart is pumping
  • Urinary catheter used to measure the amount of urine in the bladder

Treatment for Hypovolemia

The treatment can differ one patient to another and can also depend on whether the person is elderly or a young child. The following are some measures to treat hypovolemia in patients.
Patients will be supplied with fluids and blood via an IV (intravenous line), this will help restore lost fluids and blood. IV's help nurses to be able to control and administer a number of fluids to be given to the patient so that they get the correct amount.
These measures may include:
  • Blood platelet transfusion
  • Blood plasma transfusion
  • Red blood cell transfusion
  • IV crystalloids
To help regulate heart rate and improve blood circulation may require some medications prescribed by the doctor, which may include Dopamine, Dobutamine, and Norepinephrine to name a few. In some cases a patient who has suffered hypovolemia can experience septic shock or infection and to prevent this from occurring, the patient will also be required to take antibiotics. The patient will be monitored for their response to the treatment. 

Hypovolemia First Aid Measures and Tips

  • Call for medical assistance at once.
  • If there is visible profuse bleeding, try to control the bleeding by applying pressure to the wound.
  • If the casualty has not suffered injuries to the head, neck or spine then you can help the conscious casualty to shock position which is on the back with the legs slightly elevated to regulate blood circulation.
  • Avoid moving the casualty if there are any injuries to the head, neck, and spine as this could cause other injuries and complications. 
  • If there is no injury to the neck, spine, and head, you can turn the casualty's head to one side and keep the airways open. Do not administer anything orally because this may cause choking.
  • Severe loss of blood can impair the patient's body from being able to keep warm and thus could result in hypothermia. Try and keep the patient warm by covering them with a blanket.
  • Ensure that there are no constrictive clothing on the casualty, loosen tight clothing.
  • Having suffered hypovolemia could lead to heart attack, gangrene and permanent organ damage.
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Questions & Answers
Q:
What is the best way to treat permanent back and neck pain and stiffness?
A:

Here are some tips:

Neck Pain Tips: Sleep with a cervical pillow

Orthopedic or cervical pillows are made with special contours to support the space beneath the neck and head. They are also more concave for the head and provide more support to the neck.

Neck Pain Tips: Sleep on your back

The best position to lie to sleep is on your back. If you sleep on your stomach or on your side, make sure your pillow is not too thick. It should raise your head no more than 4 to 6 inches. This will keep your neck and head from turning to either side.

Neck Pain Tips: Position your computer screen at eye level

While you are working at a computer, sit comfortably in your chair with your computer in front of you. Close your eyes and then open them. When you open your eyes, you should see the middle of the computer screen. If your gaze is not in the middle of the screen, adjust the height of the screen using items like books.

To keep your head from gradually drifting forward, take frequent breaks to stretch. Getting up to walk around at least once every half-hour is one of the best neck pain tips.

Neck Pain Tips: Use a telephone headset

Never hold a phone between your shoulder and your ear. Use a headset or other hands-free system to talk on the phone and avoid abusing your neck and spine.

Neck Pain Tips: Exercise your neck muscles

One of the best neck pain tips is using the chin tuck. You can do this often throughout the day. In addition to helping strengthen the muscles that hold the head in alignment over the shoulders, it also helps strengthen the scalene and sub-occipital muscles.

Read more tips here: Neck Pain Tips: Sleeping, Posture, Exercising, Hydration & Prevention

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Temed Holdings
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Q:
What is the best treatment for neck pain and shoulder Pain?
A:

One of the best treatment for neck pain and shoulder pain is exercises:

Neck Pain Exercises: Neck Extension

  1. To begin this neck pain exercise, sit up straight in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
  2. Looking straight ahead, tuck your chin slightly (starting position)
  3. Place the palm of your hand on the back of your neck, at the base of your head
  4. Apply slight forward pressure with your hand, while resisting the forward motion of your neck and head
  5. Hold for a count of 5 and return to the starting position and relax
  6. Repeat the neck pain exercises 5-10 times

Neck pain exercises: Side bend

  1. Sit up straight in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
  2. Looking straight ahead, tuck your chin slightly (starting position)
  3. Place your left hand, palm down, on the left side of your head (around your ear)
  4. Slightly push your head to the right side with your hand, while resisting the sideways motion of your neck and head
  5. Hold for a count of 5 and return to the starting position and relax.
  6. Repeat 5-10 times
  7. Repeat the neck pain exercises with the other side.

Neck pain exercises: Neck flexion

  1. Sit up straight in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
  2. Looking straight ahead, tuck your chin slightly (starting position)
  3. Place the tips of your fingers on your forehead
  4. Slightly push your head backward with your fingers, while resisting the backward motion of your neck and head
  5. Hold for a count of 5 and return to the starting position and relax.
  6. Repeat the neck pain exercises 5-10 times

More exercises here: Neck Pain Exercises

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Temed Holdings
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Q:
How do I reduce the shoulder and neck pain?
A:

Here are some tips:

Neck Pain Tips: Sleep with a cervical pillow

Orthopedic or cervical pillows are made with special contours to support the space beneath the neck and head. They are also more concave for the head and provide more support to the neck.

Neck Pain Tips: Sleep on your back

The best position to lie to sleep is on your back. If you sleep on your stomach or on your side, make sure your pillow is not too thick. It should raise your head no more than 4 to 6 inches. This will keep your neck and head from turning to either side.

Neck Pain Tips: Position your computer screen at eye level

While you are working at a computer, sit comfortably in your chair with your computer in front of you. Close your eyes and then open them. When you open your eyes, you should see the middle of the computer screen. If your gaze is not in the middle of the screen, adjust the height of the screen using items like books.

To keep your head from gradually drifting forward, take frequent breaks to stretch. Getting up to walk around at least once every half-hour is one of the best neck pain tips.

Neck Pain Tips: Carry weight evenly

Many people make the mistake of carrying a heavy briefcase or their purse on their shoulder or on one side of their body. Doing this causes strain in the muscles and leads to pain.

Remove non-essentials from your briefcase or purse. Consider using a backpack to evenly distribute the weight across your shoulders. If you choose to carry a purse or backpack, keep your shoulders level while carrying it.

Neck Pain Tips: Maintain a proper posture

The most common posture contributing to neck pain is the “head-and-shoulders-forward” posture. In this position, the neck slopes forward, putting the head in front of the shoulders.

In this position, the head pulls the upper back forward also in a slumped position. This places a strain on the entire spinal column.

More tips here: Neck Pain Tips: Sleeping, Posture, Exercising, Hydration & Prevention

Read more
Temed Holdings
4 answers